Friday, August 13, 2010

Keyboard History



This keyboard is typical of the West. Keyboard musical instrument of manipulation to get his voice keys, there is pressed, there is also a dipijak. The composition of the keyboard to follow the logic of the left low tones to high tones right. The composition of the left and right for the bass to treble, this applies to all types which are generally keyboard piano, organ, and clavichord harpsiscord.

The musicians themselves prefer to classify it in the way they produce sound. There chordophone where the strings to vibrate and knock noise. This is included in group piano. Then aerophone where the tubes pass through the air which produce sound vibrations. In it is a group of organs. Last is electrophone where electric waves vibrated to produce sound. Instrument electric piano, electric organ is an example.

This last group is growing very rapidly in the late 20th century. This electrophone instruments can now generate all the sound quality of his elder brother. Starting from the piano to the organ can be produced by an electronic keyboard called the synthesizer.

History
This keyboard instrument had existed since ancient times. It was unclear initially appropriate. In Western scales, called diatonic, tonal divided into 12 tones. There are full and there is a tone tone semi-tone. In both groups of tone keyboard instruments are usually distinguished by a light-colored keys and for a semi-tone. The composition of a chromatic series of keys (including 12 tones) appeared in Europe in the 14th century.

At the initial appearance the blades are still very large in size. One blade can be several centimeters in width up to not much tone harmonies can be produced. New in the 16th century, 200 years old, appeared standardize blade width. One octave of 12 blades was made in total 16.5 inches wide. This means the diatonic tones can be covered in the width of one hand up to harmonic music can be produced. In the development of innovation is also white and black keys are created.

In the 15th century created a musical instrument with strings sounded through the passage Therefore, they harpsichord. This harpsichord continues to grow in the 17th century and 18th. A technique of re-sounding stringed instrument developed by a small at work. As a result a blow on the key blade can be done slowly and loudly. Slowly in Italian is a piano and loudly is a forte. Instruments that new innovations are very popular because the tone volume can be adjusted by manipulating the weak hard key board. The name of the device became the pianoforte. Gradually reduced to a piano.

This keyboard instrument that allows the development of western music with a spectrum of harmonies that can be said is unmatched by other musical flow in the earth. The composition of a symphony orchestra from the piano ability to produce harmonic tones.

New electronic keyboards appear in the 20th century. Was first marketed by Laurens Hammond in the United States in 1935. Since it began to develop an instrument that is now become the king of musical instruments. Symphony orchestra sound even with dozens of instruments can be generated by a keyboard alone.

Synthesizer Era
The emergence of silicon transistors with low prices and top quality engineers to facilitate efforts to develop sound-producing instruments. The tool can generate concise and conventional sound like the acoustic sound generated as strings, drums, or blower, or unusual sounds like a kind of atonal voice among metal screech. In 1962 an Italian engineer Paolo Ketoff issued instrument called Synket. This tool produces experimental music for listeners who are not musical layman.

Two years later appeared in America a musical instrument invented by Donald Buchla and Robert Moog only. Donald Buchla tool does not use the keyboard as a device to play it but with a touch-sensitive surface. Robert Moog making tool that uses the keyboard as a device pengolahnya. At his side was installed conventional control equipment such as the play button to harden and memelainkan voice, and to set high and low tones are generated. Robert Moog's creation is much easier to put in steady use of traditional music in the order of a new voice. The works of Johan Sebastian Bach can be played with the Mini Moog, so the appliance is called.

When the tool is not able to play a harmonic tone. Only one-one tone can be played, until this instrument as a bearer of popular melodies in pop music. Rock music, including the first to adopt this instrument in the genre of progressive rock bands like Yes, Genesis, Emerson Lake and Palmer.

Digital Age
New in 1980 may issue a voice synthesizer harmonic. The first equipment is Yamaha's renowned DX-7 which came out in 1983. This equipment uses the development from the time of Robert Moog synthesizer with Frequenty Modulation Synthesis, designed by John Chowning at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. FM produces timbre variation by changing the frequency of a wave with another wave amplitude proportionately. Yamaha DX-7 has a five-octave keyboards. More than 100 000 this device for sale by Yamaha.

Then in the next year issued a Casio CZ-101 that uses batteries for energy. Has four votes and the ability to follow an analog synthesizer. CZ-101 sale price was only a quarter of the price of Yamaha DX-7 to the popularity of electronic keyboards to be greatly improved.

The voices can be recorded. The result was a wave tone recordings which translates as digital data. This digital data can be processed and re-rung with musical control. This is called sampling instruments. This sampling has become a common part of the electronic keyboard instruments.

The first sampling was issued in 1970 by the Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument (CMI) in Sydney, Australia. Fairlight CMI is a public computer devices with additional device that can record and turn it into digital data (digitize), then store and play back on the instrument keyboard.
Store and play back capability was developed by Raymond Kurzweil in 1984 through a device called a Kurzweil 250.

In kibornya there are digital codes from the grand piano sounds, strings (string), and more orchestral instrument timbre. This tool is intended for use other than the show also aims to create a composition. Keyboards that develops with polyphony and sampling capabilities of synthesizers called musical workstation.

In 1983 several musical instrument manufacturers agreed to incorporate a variety of procedures for musical equipment to work in a computer device.

The result is a Musical Instrument Digital Interface or MIDI. MIDI tone becomes a way to order what was played in what timbre, nuance of what, and so on. With computers and programs that fit then it can be done like what can be done in a sophisticated musical workstation.
Now this world music performances always include an electronic keyboard instrument like this concise.


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